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The conventional view of illiteracy is that it is closely linked to poverty. While that is certainly true, there are numerous other factors responsible for the low levels of literacy, especially among females, and it is only by understanding the impact of these other factors that significant – and meaningul – increases in illiteracy can be achieved.

The single most important factor preventing girls from attending and achieving in school is gender discrimination. Girls and boys both have hurdles to overcome. For girls the hurdles are, for the most part, higher and more frequent‒simply because they are girls.

i”m mentioning different causes of hurdles which need to be shorted out by govt and diff NGOs

Family poverty is also a barrier to education. Sending children to school may result in the loss of their income or help at home. The school may charge fees that the family knows it cannot meet or require a uniform that a family cannot afford. And often, when a choice is to be made between sending a girl or a boy to school, the family will put its scarce resources into the education of the boy, believing that it is a better long-term investment.

Issues of safety and security in and around school particularly affect girls.
If children have to travel long distances to school, parents are less likely to allow their daughters to make the journey because of the risks to their personal safety.
Physical violence in schools, particularly bullying and corporal punishment, affects boys and girls. Girls are more likely to be victims of sexual violence, including rape.
The traditional gender divisions of labour are mirrored in school. Girls may be made to do school maintenance tasks at the expense of learning, denied physical exercise, and may endure sexual and emotional harassment.
There may not be adequate (or any) hygiene and sanitation facilities on or near school premises. This can present a major problem for adolescent girls in particular.
The lack of female teachers, particularly as role models and possible confidantes, can make female pupils feel less secure in the school environment.
Gender-based violence, including rape and early pregnancy, forced marriage and the spread of HIV are among the problems for girls in refugee camps and schools.
Children in situations of crisis and instability are often denied their right to education when they need the routine of schooling the most.

Children are more likely to drop out of school if it is irrelevant to their realities. There is a need for relevant curricula and materials for literacy and numeracy, along with “facts and skills for life,” which include education on rights, gender equality, health, nutrition, HIV/AIDS and peace. Girls face additional challenges. Females are generally absent–or portrayed stereotypically–in the content and images in lessons. This is particularly true in areas traditionally regarded as the male domain.

Lack Of qualified female teachers: Girls are more likely to attend schools if they have female teachers. Girls are more comfortable and more vocal with lady teachers, thus actively focusing and participating in the learning process. Also, parents – especially in rural areas – are hesitant to send their girls to schools that have only male teachers. Nearly all committees and commissions that have looked into illiteracy have recommended increased recruitment of women teachers.

Lack of hostel facilities for girls: Many girls desirous of pursuing education above middle level, facilities for which are available away from their homes, cannot avail themselves of these facilities due to lack of hostel arrangements. Girls, particularly those belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes would continue their education at middle and above levels if they could find free or inexpensive residential facilities nearer the educational institution.

Fear of sexual harassment: Parents often complain about insecurity for girls attending schools. Instances of abduction, rape and molestation of girls dampen the enthusiasm of parents and girl students in pursuing education beyond a certain age; thereafter they remain bound to thier homes.

NOW When in different tv channels they see the misdeed of teachers in educational institute even in town like Delhi,this thing doing very high negative impact on parents.

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